Never would General de Gaulle have referred to the Ural Atlantic European border had he first read Fernand Braudel written works.

« What makes that Eastern and Western parts of Europe are different is the result of the Byzantium influence over both the Russian civilization and its people since the 10th century ».

Civilization grammar 1963, manual dedicated to students of the last year of secondary school but considered of too high level by the new wave of teachers. Flamarion edition.

We shall endeavour to show how can Russia rise within a broaden Europe while European history is inclusive of and subject to the relationships between Mediterranean territories and the Arab world. Whatever the opinions are over the endless conflict of cultures, one always tends to put forward the Christian civilization against the Muslim one.

However, it is not two but three civilizations that made the Europe/Mediterranean history.

The early days of the 21st Century are obviously marked by the historical come back of Russia with quite favourable prospects at short to medium term.